Monday, January 12, 2015

Winchester Mystery House

After her husband's death in 1881, Sarah Winchester inherited more than $20.5 million. She also received nearly fifty percent ownership of the Winchester Repeating Arms Company, giving her an income of roughly $1,000 per day, equivalent to about $30,000 a day in 2012. These inheritances gave her a tremendous amount of wealth which she used to fund the ongoing construction.

At some point after her husband's death a Boston medium[citation needed] told her, while supposedly channeling her late husband, that she should leave her home in New Haven and travel West, where she must continuously build a home for herself and the spirits of people who had fallen victim to Winchester rifles. Winchester left New Haven and headed for California. Though it is possible she was simply seeking a change of location and a hobby during her lengthy depression, other sources claim that Winchester came to believe her family and fortune were haunted by ghosts, and that only by moving West and continuously building them a house could she appease these spirits.

In 1884 she purchased an unfinished farmhouse in the Santa Clara Valley and began building her mansion. Carpenters were hired and worked on the house day and night until it became a seven story mansion. She did not use an architect and added on to the building in a haphazard fashion, so that the home contains numerous oddities like doors or stairs that go nowhere, windows overlooking other rooms, and stairs with odd-sized risers. After her death, many accounts attributed these oddities to her belief in ghosts.

Before the 1906 earthquake, the house had been seven stories high, but today it is only four stories. The house is predominantly made of redwood, as Mrs. Winchester preferred the wood; however, she disliked the look of it. She therefore demanded that a faux grain and stain be applied. This is why almost all the wood in the home is covered. Approximately 20,500 US gallons (78,000 l) of paint were required to paint the house. The home itself is built using a floating foundation that is believed to have saved it from total collapse in the 1906 earthquake and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. This type of construction allows the home to shift freely, as it is not completely attached to its brick base. There are roughly 160 rooms, including 40 bedrooms, 2 ballrooms (one completed and one unfinished) as well as 47 fireplaces, over 10,000 panes of glass, 17 chimneys (with evidence of two others), two basements and three elevators. Winchester's property was about 162 acres (66 ha) at one time, but the estate has since been reduced to 4.5 acres (1.8 ha) – the minimum necessary to contain the house and nearby outbuildings. It has gold and silver chandeliers and hand-inlaid parquet floors and trim. There are doors and stairways that lead nowhere and a vast array of colors and materials. Due to Mrs Winchester's debilitating arthritis, special "easy riser" stairways were installed as a replacement for her original steep construction. This allowed her to move about her home freely as she was only able to raise her feet a few inches high.

The home's conveniences were rare at the time of its construction. These included steam and forced-air heating, modern indoor toilets and plumbing, push-button gas lights, Mrs Winchester's personal (and only) hot shower from indoor plumbing. There are also three elevators, one of which was powered by a rare horizontal hydraulic elevator piston. Most elevator pistons are vertical because a vertical layout takes up less space, but Winchester preferred the improved functionality of the horizontal configuration. Mrs. Winchester never skimped on the many adornments that she believed contributed to its architectural beauty. Many of the stained glass windows were created by the Tiffany Company. Some were designed specifically for her, and others by her, including a "spider web" window that featured her favorite web design and the repetition of the number thirteen, another of her preoccupations. This window was never installed, but exists in the so-called "$25,000 storage room" (so named because its contents were originally appraised at a value of $25,000; the value today is inestimable, but thought to be[weasel words] at least ten times that). A second window was designed by Tiffany himself, so that when sunlight strikes the prismatic crystals a rainbow is cast across the room. The window was installed in an interior wall in a room with no light exposure, preventing the effect from being seen.

When Winchester died, all of her possessions (apart from the house) were bequeathed to her niece and personal secretary. Her niece then took everything she wanted and sold the rest in a private auction. It supposedly took six trucks working eight hours a day for six weeks to remove all of the furniture from the home, an account disputed by Winchester's biographer. Mrs Winchester made no mention of the mansion in her will, and appraisers considered the house worthless due to the damage caused by the earthquake, the unfinished design and the impractical nature of its construction. It was sold at auction to a local investor for over $135,000, and subsequently leased for 10 years to John and Mayme Brown, who eventually purchased the house. In February 1923, five months after Winchester's death, the house was opened to the public, with Mayme Brown serving as the first tour guide. Harry Houdini toured the mansion in 1924, and the newspaper account of his visit, displayed in the rifle museum on the estate, called it the Mystery House.[citation needed]

Today the home is owned by Winchester Investments LLC, a privately held company representing the descendants of John and Mayme Brown. The home retains unique touches that reflect Mrs Winchester's beliefs and her reported preoccupation with warding off malevolent spirits. These spirits are said to have directly inspired her as to the way the house should be built. The number thirteen and spider web motifs, which carried spiritual significance for her, occur throughout the house. For example, an expensive imported chandelier that originally had 12 candle-holders was altered to accommodate 13 candles, wall clothes hooks are in multiples of 13, and a spider web-patterned stained glass window contains 13 colored stones. The sink's drain covers also have 13 holes. In tribute, the house's current groundskeepers have created a topiary tree shaped like the numeral 13. Also, every Friday the 13th the large bell on the property is rung 13 times at 1300 hours (1 o'clock p.m.) in tribute to Winchester.


Sunday, January 11, 2015

Mary King’s Close – Edinburgh, Scotland

Mary King’s close is an underground warren of streets and dwellings. It was once a thriving trade area where Edinburgh’s tradesmen used to live and work however, in 1645 the close was believed to have been abandoned after an outbreak of the plague. Those that were infected stayed behind in isolation. The location is now a popular tourist destination, running daily tours to people interested in learning about the history and the legends associated with the close.

Since the 17th century there have been reports of paranormal goings on in the close, and it’s now regarded as one of the most haunted places in Scotland. The Coltheart family who lived there in 1685 where the first ones to report something paranormal. Soon after they moved in after the outbreak of plague, they began to see ghostly figures, and were left terrified after seeing phantom disembodied limbs, and experiencing very vivid nightmares.

Today, staff and visitors have reported seeing the ghost of a ‘worried woman’, a woman in black, and a little girl named Annie. The ghost of Annie has been known to interact with people who leave her gifts in one of the rooms.

Other reports include sounds, such as scratching, the sounds of a party or tavern, and footsteps that seem to follow you around. Stones have also been thrown and intense EVP’s are often captured throughout the area, particularly in Mr. Chesney’s house.


Isla de las Muñecas (Island of the Dolls)

Located on Lake Teshuilo in Xochimilco nr Mexico City, the island La Isla de la Munecas (The Island of the Dolls) is certainly one of the strangest haunted locations in our list. In the 1950’s, a man named Julian Santan Barrera moved to the island (despite being married with a young family).

Julian was unaware of the dark history of the area when he moved there to become a recluse. Legend says that three young girls were playing near the water in the 1920’s, when one of the girls fell in and drowned in the murky waters. Locals believed that ever since her death, the young girls’ spirit has been unable to leave the island. It soon grew quite a reputation as a haunted place, and locals wouldn’t go near it at night for fear of what they may see.

Julian claimed that as soon as he moved on the island a little girl began speaking to him. The girl told Julian how she had died, and that she was trapped on the island. He began to get the dolls for this little girl, often selling off fruit and vegetables that he had grown on the island, so that he could buy old dolls for her to play with.

Julian later told his nephew that it was becoming more difficult to appease the young girl’s thirst for these dolls, with him seemingly worried that she wanted him to join her in her watery grave. The same day he had this discussion, his nephew was returning to the island, when he found his uncle face down in the canal. His body was in the same spot where the little girl had apparently drowned seventy years before.

Today, tourists to the island often speak of the doll’s eyes following them. Others have also reported that the mutilated dolls whisper to them, especially at night. Julian’s ghost is also said to remain on the island, as well as the young girls’.


Friday, January 9, 2015

Anna Baker's Haunted Wedding Dress

A Wedding Dress in a room at Baker Mansion is said to be haunted by the daughter of the man who owned this house. Elias Baker built Baker Mansion in 1849. He was a very proud and snobby man and dominated his family. When his daughter Anna fell in love with a local steelworker, Elias told her she was forbidden to marry the man because he was lower class. Heartbroken Anna never did get married and died an old maid in 1914.

When Baker Mansion was turned into a museum, a wedding dress was put on display in Anna’s old room. Over the years, the wedding dress has gained a reputation for being haunted. Numerous visitors claim to have seen the wedding dress move within its glass case. On nights with a full moon the dress quakes violently in it’s glass case, sometimes threatening to shatter the display. They say that it is Anna’s ghost shaking the exhibit, enraged at the sight of a wedding gown because she never got to wear one.

The ghosts of both Elias and his daughter Anna have reportedly been spotted in the house by startled staff and visitors. Elias himself is alleged to haunt Baker Mansion’s dining room. A woman in black has reportedly been seen roving around on the third floor. There have been other stories of ghostly figures seen reflected in mirrors around the old stone house. Anna’s brother, David baker, was killed in a steamboat accident in the winter of 1852. People have heard screams coming from the basement ice room where the dead body of David was stored until the frozen ground thawed enough to give him a proper burial.

Disastrous endings can only result from a disgruntled bride-to-be whose angry, over-protective and powerful father has sent her intended love interest off packing, where he is never to be seen again. And where happiness once lived in the existence of a planned fairytale wedding with the most extravagant wedding dress that money can buy, and the possibility of dreams coming true through true love is now darkened by sadness and gloom that now encompasses the once overjoyed and very much in love Anna Baker once her father took matters into his own hands and ended that entire affair.

The very wealthy ironmaster Elias Baker only allowed for the very best things to touch and surround his family, and when his second to youngest daughter decided to marry, Elias couldn’t have been more pleased until he discovered who the intended groom was. Screams and yelling could be heard for miles away as he and his beautiful daughter hashed it out and finally ended the escalated argument with unfavorable results as to what was to come. Anna was stubborn and didn’t care about fancy houses, jewels, fine clothing and the best that money could buy; she only wished to marry the very ruggedly handsome low paid iron worker that labored for her father from sun-up to sundown at his prosperous Alleghany Furnace that offered some of the finest iron works in the area for the times.

Elias Baker and his cousin Roland Diller purchased the dying blast furnace, located in Blair County, in 1836 and turned it into a profitable business. Elias bought out his cousin’s share in 1844 just as the furnace was at its peak, bringing in a mega fortune that allowed Elias to contract Robert Cary Long, Jr., Baltimore’s first native-born professionally-trained architect. A master in all the prevalent styles of the day, he built the family a massive Greek-revival style mansion, completed at the cost of $15,000, a hefty sum for 1849.Tthe interior of the mansion is nothing short of exquisite with decorative black walnut woodwork, massive fireplaces made from Italian marble, and imported hand-carved oak furniture from Belgium. The exterior shows off decorative iron work fitting for an ironmaster. Sadly Elias was in a state of financial ruins before the mansion was complete due to falling iron prices and high end details that he felt the mansion must possess at any cost.

Elias’s wife Hetty understood love and all that it entailed, but her husband’s strong convictions about whom his daughter should or should not marry prevailed over any belief that she herself carried. Anna was in love with only one man and if she couldn’t marry him she would marry no one. Anna remained single for the rest of her life and she held a deep bitterness towards her father that caused health ailments along with a sadness that was evident to anyone that dared to look at or speak to the once strikingly beautiful spinster.

The extravagant wedding dress that Anna had chosen for her very own wedding day with detailing fit for a princess was going to worn by another woman from a prominent family. Elizabeth Bell is rumored to have mocked Anna for never having been married, and she not only wore Anna’s wedding dress on her special day, it has now become known as the “haunted Bell wedding dress”. Elizabeth Bell Dysart was the daughter of the prominent business man Edward Bell who founded and gave his name to the nearby town of Bellwood. The famously haunted wedding dress remains on display behind protective glass in Anna Baker’s old bedroom as part of the Blair County Historical Society’s museum in the Baker Mansion.

Anna Baker died in 1914 with a heavy heart over her lost love and grief stricken that she was never able to forgive her father. It is believed that Anna was determined to claim her dress back after death by wearing it in eternity, and apparently she got her wish, because because ever since her passing the dress has been moving and swaying as if a proud bride-to-be were standing in front of a looking glass admiring its beauty. Visitors to the Historical Society always study the glass encased dress for possible reasons for its movement and many claim that the historical floorboards under the display could be weak or loose, causing the case to swivel a bit, making the dress sway. Other people speculate that drafts are the reason for the unexplained haunted dress to move on its own.

The Historical Society decided to conduct their own study into the reasons why the wedding dress never remains still and concluded that after hidden cameras picked up obvious and deliberate movement while no one else was in the room that Anna Baker’s spirit lives on and she has come to reclaim her dress. However the ghost and spirit sightings does end here. People have claimed to see an older female spirit dressed in a heavy black dress walking slowly up the stairs. Most believe that this particular ghost is none other then the matriarch of the Baker family, Anna’s mother Hetty. The apparition of a male dressed in a uniform that is reminiscent of a steamboat crew member has been seen near the cellar. This spirit is believed to be Anna’s older brother David whose frozen lifeless body remained in the basement until the ground thawed so that he could receive a proper burial after being killed in a boating accident in 1852.

Visitors to the museum along with several staff members have seen the ghosts of both Elias and Anna Baker. The bitter old maid has been lurking in the parlor and in the bedrooms on the second floor. Elias prefers to haunt the diningroom area, and Anna’s brother Sylvester enjoys banging his cane on the floor. This ghost is nothing short of cantankerous and bangs away until he is noticed, and then he simply vanishes into thin air. Spectral forms and orbs have been caught on video when their obvious forms have reflected in the mirrors located in the mansion. Cold spots, moving furniture, eerie and unexplainable odors and footsteps are all a part of the paranormal activity living at the mansion.

A mystical music box plays at random hours, especially when no one is in the room. A police guard dog once brought along when the security system went berserk growled and carried on at absolutely nothing, at least nothing that the human eye could detect. Witnesses walking past the mansion late at night have reported ghosts that have absolutely no connection to the Baker family as they appear to be from an entirely different era according to the garments that they are seen wearing. Visiting the mansion during a full moon reaps excellent benfits to ghost chasers, paranormal investigators and anyone who enjoys a good scare.

The wedding dress and the Baker ghosts are all now a permanant part of the Blair County Historical Society after they leased the building in 1922 and opened it up to the public as a museum. Years of fundraising and strong community support allowed the county to purchase the Baker mansion in 1941. The Baker Mansion Museum is happy to share with the public a piece of history through guided tours that offer visitors a glimpse at exquisite period furnished rooms, historic exhibits covering transportation and the Civil War. Visitors will also learn about the liesurely activities that people enjoyed during a very different time in history.


Thursday, January 8, 2015

Deadly Serial Killer: Rose West

Charmaine West didn’t get along with her stepmother Rose, but when she was eight years old her dad was jailed and someone had to look after her.

More than two decades later, the little girl’s skeleton was found in the coal cellar of the family’s Gloucester home.

For evil Rose West, taking care of someone meant killing them... with or without her husband Fred’s help.

Following Myra Hindley’s death in 2002, West became the only woman serving a whole-life tariff after she was convicted in 1995 of killing a string of young women.

Together with her husband Fred West, who committed suicide while on remand, they sexually molested, murdered and dismembered young girls they found on the street.

The couple’s typical pattern was to pick up girls from bus stops around Gloucester and imprison them in their home for several days before killing them.

Bodies were found buried in the gardens of the couple’s homes or in the cellar.

Rose, who sometimes worked as a ­prostitute, had eight children – five by Fred, who she met while still a teenager, and three by ­clients.

In June 1971 she murdered Charmaine, the daughter of Fred’s former wife Rena, and buried her in their previous home at 25 Midland Road, while Fred West was serving a prison sentence for petty theft.

One of the bodies found at the now infamous 25 Cromwell Street was her own daughter ­Heather, 16, who was murdered by Fred in June 1987 after being abused by Rosemary while Fred raped her.

The Wests had told friends Heather had gone away to work at a holiday village.

Another victim was Shirley Robinson, who was eight months pregnant by Fred when she disappeared in April 1978.

She had written to her father Baden ­Robinson, 61, a former RAF man who runs an English pub in Cologne, Germany, saying: “I am expecting a child from Freddy. We are in love.” Her unborn child was found by her remains which were discovered in the back garden at Cromwell Street.

Lynda Gough vanished in April 1973 from Gloucester, where she had a rented flat and worked as a seamstress.

Hers was the eighth set of remains found, excavated from six feet below the ground-floor bathroom.

West, who has never confessed to her heinous crimes, has made a life for herself in prison, playing monopoly, browsing mail order catalogues and buying clothes, according to reports.

In 2010 another prisoner revealed West had struck up a sickening relationship with Baby P’s mother Tracey Connelly – even making her breakfast in bed.

Another report suggested West had become a skilled chef and on Sundays is allowed to cook for the five other women in her unit, with her meat-and-potato pie said to be one of their favourites.


Wednesday, January 7, 2015

The Ghost of Bobby Mackey's Club (A Haunting S01E07)

Bobby Mackey’s Music World is a popular country western music club in Wilder, Kentucky. Many nights are filled with music, fun and dancing inside of the club. However, when the lights go out, many say that all of the patrons do not leave.
Bobby Mackey’s was not always such a fun place to be. Especially if you were one of the alleged victims of human sacrifice that occurred within the basement. As a matter of fact, the basement is somewhat of a legend all by itself, with many claiming that a “portal to hell” can be found there. But why would people make such fantastic claims? As luck would have it, you are about to find out.

The darkness that many believe surrounds Bobby Mackey’s started many years ago, when the building was used as a slaughter house. The well in the basement was the perfect way to dispose of the bloody animal parts. Eventually a “blood well” was created in the basement of the old slaughterhouse. Years later, a few locals found a new use for the old well and the abandoned basement. You guessed it. Satanic rituals. Oh you didn’t guess that? Let’s continue.

The walls of the basement are rumored to have witnessed unspeakable things. Tales of human sacrifice were born during this stage of Bobby Mackey’s Haunted History. Even stories of handicapped children being sacrificed, have been told. The secret occultists that met in the basement managed to keep it a secret for the most part. Their rituals and meetings slipped under the radar until a beautiful local girl, by the name of Pearl Bryan, came along.

Pearl Bryan was a popular young lady, with her choice of many local men. However, it was a man by the name Scott Jackson that managed to win Pearl’s heart. Pearl was introduced to Jackson by her cousin. He seemed to have a very bright future and was a student at the Ohio College of Dental Surgery. Pearl and Jackson seemed to be the perfect couple, except for one little thing. Those secret Satanists that met in the basement of the slaughter house? He was one of them.

Pearl was unaware of Jackson’s double life as a basement occultist. She loved and trusted him dearly. Soon, the unthinkable happened. Pearl became pregnant with Jackson’s child. Although this may sound like a fairy tale, so far..It is not. You see, Pearl and Scott were not married. This was considered taboo in those days. Both Pearl and Scott’s families would have been shamed. Not to mention all of those dreams that Scott Jackson had. Dreams that did not involve being a father. Soon Jackson had hatched a plan and on February 1st, 1896..He set it into motion

Pearl was five months pregnant on this night, but had agreed to Jackson’s plan to perform an abortion. A procedure like this was unheard of in those times and Pearl knew it was dangerous, but agreed anyway. She met Jackson and his roommate to enact the plan. She had no idea that she would soon be dead and an intricate part of Bobby Mackey’s dark history.

Scott was a student of Dental surgery and was not even a doctor yet. His skills were minimal and soon his plan had taken a turn for the worse. When the drugs that Jackson believed would cause an abortion failed to succeed, Jackson turned to his dental tools. After an hour of crude surgery and unimaginable terror, Pearl was still with child. At this point, Pearl was bleeding profusely and screaming in agonizing pain. Her screams were loud enough to cause Jackson to panic and fear that his secret surgery would be discovered. It was then that he turned his attention to Pearl. He had to stop her screams. So he did.

Jackson and his roommate murdered Pearl Bryan that night. Jackson used his dental tools to cut off her head. Not too far from Bobby Mackey’s, is where her headless body was eventually found.She was only identified by her shoes. It was later learned that her head had been used in some kind secret of ritual in the old basement and then tossed into the well. At least that is what many believe. Jackson never actually revealed the location of her head. He also never shared details about the ritual that was performed that night, in what would one day become Bobby Mackey’s Music World.

Jackson and his roommate were hung for their crime on March 21st 1897. Some locals claimed that just before he was hanged, Jackson’s roommate vowed to return from the dead and haunt the area. Ever since, reports of a headless woman have been made on several occasions at Bobby Mackey’s Music World. Many believe that it is the ghost of Pearl Bryan. They say that Pearl Bryan now eternally resides at Bobby Mackey’s. Some blame the ritual performed on the night of her death, for her spirit’s attachment to the property.

Soon after, the old slaughterhouse was torn down and a new building put in it’s place. During the prohibition, it was used for illegal gambling and drinking that resulted in many murders on the site. Many of these cases were never solved and the bodies never found.

After prohibition was lifted, the building was used for a number of nightclubs and drinking holes. Involvement with Cincinnati mobsters, more illegal activity, murder and even suicide continued to haunt the building. One owner named “Buck” Brady ended his own life there in 1965 after selling out to local mobsters.

One of the more notable nightclubs that once thrived in the building was known as “The Latin Quarter”. The owner of the bar had a lovely daughter named “Johanna” and was very protective of her. When Johanna fell madly in love with a singer at her father’s nightclub, he used his mobster connections to have the singer murdered. His daughter was so depressed by her fathers actions, that she attempted to kill her own father and then sadly, took her own life. Her body was found in the basement near the old well. Eerily, she was found to be exactly five months pregnant when she died. Just like the young and beautiful Pearl Bryan so many years before.

Then came Bobby Mackey, a popular singer in Kentucky. He decided to buy the building in 1978 and it has been used as a nightclub ever since. It has been somewhat suiccessful, although the haunted tales of paranormal activity have not seemd to hurt business at all. The club has been featured on many popular televison shows, including “Ghost Adventures“. Bobby Mackey’s proved to be one of the best and most terrifying locations ever featured on the show. many paranormal investigations have been done to find evidence of the reports.

People have reported seeing ghostly apparitions, hearing disembodied voices and even being attacked by unseen forces, while inside of the haunted nightclub. Although nobody is sure what the source of the evil that resides at Bobby Mackey’s is, there are very few that doubt the existence of this evil.

No matter what may be causing the many ghosts and terrifying experiences at Bobby Mackey’s, one thing is certain. Bobby Mackey’s Music World will remain one of the most fascinating and Haunted Places in America, for a very long time.

Bobby Mackey's haunted club is featured in an episode of 'A Haunting" titled "Gateway to Hell" aired March 17, 2006.


Tuesday, January 6, 2015

Lotus Feet

Foot binding (also known as "Lotus feet") is the custom of applying painfully tight binding to the feet of young girls to prevent further growth. The practice possibly originated among upper-class court dancers during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in Imperial China (10th or 11th century), but spread in the Song Dynasty and eventually became common among all but the lowest of classes. Foot binding became popular as a means of displaying status (women from wealthy families who did not need them to work could afford to have their feet bound) and was correspondingly adopted as a symbol of beauty in Chinese culture.

The Manchu Emperor Kangxi tried to ban footbinding in 1664 but failed. In the 1800s (19th century), Chinese reformers challenged the practice but it was not until the early 20th century that foot binding began to die out, partly from changing social conditions and partly as a result of anti-foot binding campaigns. Foot-binding resulted in lifelong disabilities for most of its subjects, and some elderly Chinese women still survive today with disabilities related to their bound feet.

There are many suggestions for the origin of footbinding. One story relates that during the Shang Dynasty, the concubine Daji, who was said to have clubfoot, asked the Emperor to make footbinding mandatory for all girls so that her own feet would be the standard of beauty and elegance. Another story tells of a favorite courtesan of Emperor Xiao Baojuan, Pan Yu'er (潘玉儿) who had delicate feet, dancing bare feet over a platform inlaid with gold and pearls decorated with lotus flower design. The emperor expressed admiration and said that "lotus springs from her every step!" (步步生蓮), a possible reference to the Buddhist legend of Padmavati under whose feet lotus springs forth. This may have given rise to the terms "golden lotus" or "lotus feet" used to describe bound feet, there is however no evidence that Pan Yu'er ever bound her feet. The general consensus is that the practice is likely to have originated from the time of Emperor Li Yu (Southern Tang Dynasty, just before the Song Dynasty). Emperor Li Yu asked his concubine Yao Niang (窅娘) to bind her feet in white silk into the shape of the crescent moon, and performed a lotus dance ballet-like on the points of her feet. Yao Niang was described as so graceful that she 'skimmed on top of golden lotus'. This was then replicated by other upper-class women and the practice spread.

The practice of foot binding became popular during the Song Dynasty. By the end of the Song Dynasty, it was customary for men to drink from a special shoe whose heel contained a small cup. During the Yuan Dynasty, some would also drink directly from the shoe itself. The practice was called "toast to the golden lotus" and lasted until the late Qing Dynasty.

Bound feet became a mark of beauty and was also a prerequisite for finding a husband. It also became an avenue for poorer women to marry into money; for example, in Guangdong in the late 19th century, it was customary to bind the feet of the eldest daughter of a lower-class family who was intended to be brought up as a lady. Her younger sisters would grow up to be bond-servants or domestic slaves and, when old enough, either the concubines of rich men or the wives of laboring men, able to work in the fields alongside them. In contrast, the tiny, narrow feet of the "ladies" were considered beautiful and made a woman's movements more feminine and dainty, and it was assumed these eldest daughters would never need to work. Women, their families, and their husbands took great pride in tiny feet, with the ideal length, called the “Golden Lotus”, being about 8 centimetres (3 in) long. This pride was reflected in the elegantly embroidered silk slippers and wrappings girls and women wore to cover their feet. Walking on bound feet necessitated bending the knees slightly and swaying to maintain proper movement and balance, a dainty walk that was also considered erotic to men.

Bound feet were once considered intensely erotic in Chinese culture, and a woman with perfect lotus feet was likely to make a more prestigious marriage. Qing Dynasty sex manuals listed 48 different ways of playing with women's bound feet. Some men preferred never to see a woman's bound feet, so they were always concealed within tiny "lotus shoes" and wrappings. Feng Xun is recorded as stating, "If you remove the shoes and bindings, the aesthetic feeling will be destroyed forever"—an indication that men understood that the symbolic erotic fantasy of bound feet did not correspond to its unpleasant physical reality, which was therefore to be kept hidden. The fact that the bound foot was concealed from men's eyes was considered to be sexually appealing. On the other hand, an uncovered foot would also give off a foul odour, as various saprobic microorganisms would colonize the unwashable folds.

For men, the primary erotic effect was a function of the lotus gait, the tiny steps and swaying walk of a woman whose feet had been bound. Women with such deformed feet avoided placing weight on the front of the foot and tended to walk predominantly on their heels. As a result, women who underwent foot-binding walked in a careful, cautious, and unsteady manner. Additionally a common male fantasy was that the unusual gait tended to strengthen the vaginal muscles.

An attribute of a woman with bound feet was the limitation of her mobility, and therefore, her inability to take part in politics, social life and the world. Bound feet rendered women dependent on their families, particularly their men, and became an alluring symbol of chastity and male ownership, since a woman was largely restricted to her home and could not venture far without an escort or the help of watchful servants.


The process was started before the arch of the foot had a chance to develop fully, usually between the ages of 4 and 9. Binding usually started during the winter months since the feet were more likely to be numb, and therefore the pain would not be as extreme.

First, each foot would be soaked in a warm mixture of herbs and animal blood; this was intended to soften the foot and aid the binding. Then, the toenails were cut back as far as possible to prevent in-growth and subsequent infections, since the toes were to be pressed tightly into the sole of the foot. Cotton bandages, 3 m long and 5 cm wide (10 ft by 2 in), were prepared by soaking them in the blood and herb mixture. To enable the size of the feet to be reduced, the toes on each foot were curled under, then pressed with great force downwards and squeezed into the sole of the foot until the toes broke.

The broken toes were held tightly against the sole of the foot while the foot was then drawn down straight with the leg and the arch forcibly broken. The bandages were repeatedly wound in a figure-eight movement, starting at the inside of the foot at the instep, then carried over the toes, under the foot, and around the heel, the freshly broken toes being pressed tightly into the sole of the foot. At each pass around the foot, the binding cloth was tightened, pulling the ball of the foot and the heel together, causing the broken foot to fold at the arch, and pressing the toes underneath.

The girl's broken feet required a great deal of care and attention, and they would be unbound regularly. Each time the feet were unbound, they were washed, the toes carefully checked for injury, and the nails carefully and meticulously trimmed. When unbound, the broken feet were also kneaded to soften them and the soles of the girl's feet were often beaten to make the joints and broken bones more flexible. The feet were also soaked in a concoction that caused any necrotic flesh to fall off.

Immediately after this pedicure, the girl's broken toes were folded back under and the feet were rebound. The bindings were pulled even tighter each time the girl's feet were rebound. This unbinding and rebinding ritual was repeated as often as possible (for the rich at least once daily, for poor peasants two or three times a week), with fresh bindings. It was generally an elder female member of the girl's family or a professional foot binder who carried out the initial breaking and ongoing binding of the feet. It was considered preferable to have someone other than the mother do it, as she might have been sympathetic to her daughter's pain and less willing to keep the bindings tight.

The most common problem with bound feet was infection. Despite the amount of care taken in regularly trimming the toenails, they would often in-grow, becoming infected and causing injuries to the toes. Sometimes for this reason the girl's toenails would be peeled back and removed altogether. The tightness of the binding meant that the circulation in the feet was faulty, and the circulation to the toes was almost cut off, so any injuries to the toes were unlikely to heal and were likely to gradually worsen and lead to infected toes and rotting flesh.

If the infection in the feet and toes entered the bones, it could cause them to soften, which could result in toes dropping off; although, this was seen as a benefit because the feet could then be bound even more tightly. Girls whose toes were more fleshy would sometimes have shards of glass or pieces of broken tiles inserted within the binding next to her feet and between her toes to cause injury and introduce infection deliberately. Disease inevitably followed infection, meaning that death from septic shock could result from foot-binding, and a surviving girl was more at risk for medical problems as she grew older.

At the beginning of the binding, many of the foot bones would remain broken, often for years. However, as the girl grew older, the bones would begin to heal. Even after the foot bones had healed, they were prone to re-breaking repeatedly, especially when the girl was in her teenage years and her feet were still soft. Older women were more likely to break hips and other bones in falls, since they could not balance securely on their feet, and were less able to rise to their feet from a sitting position.


Monday, January 5, 2015

The Haunting of Ozone Disco

The Ozone Disco at one time was a trendy hotspot disco in Quezon City that caught on fire. Due to mass panicking, nobody was able to get out alive. Some people near the location hear ghostly disco music in their houses at night and see faint people dancing.

A fire at the Ozone Disco Club in Quezon City, Philippines broke out shortly after midnight, Philippine Standard Time, March 18, 1996 (04:00:00 PM, March 17, 1996, GMT) leaving at least 162 people dead. It was officially acknowledged as the worst fire in Philippine history, and the world's worst nightclub fire since the 1977 Beverly Hills Supper Club fire in Southgate, Kentucky.

Ozone Disco, located along Timog Avenue corner Tomas Morato Avenue in Quezon City, was opened in 1991 by Segio Orgaoow. Its building had previously housed a jazz club named "Birdland". The disco was operated by Westwood Entertainment Company, Inc.
The fire broke out on March 18, 1996. At the time of the fire, it was estimated that there were around 350 patrons and 40 club employees inside Ozone Disco, though it had been approved for occupancy for only 35 persons. Most of the club guests were high school and college students attending graduation or end-of-the-school-year celebrations.[6] Survivors reported seeing sparks flying inside the disc jockey's booth shortly after midnight, followed by smoke which they thought was part of the party plan of the DJ.

Many of the bodies were discovered along the corridor leading to the only exit, piled up waist-high. Quezon City officials were quoted as saying that the club's emergency exit had been blocked by a new building next door, and that there was no proper fire exit. It was also reported that the exit had been locked from the outside by the club's guards, who had thought that a riot had taken place.
Even though the incident happened, the structure which housed the disco is known for its haunting's until today. The people who live near the location of the disco house hear faint disco music and see ghostly people dancing when darkness falls. They also claim that the people were the victims of the fire.

The Ozone Disco in Manila was the scene of a fire that caused the death of 162 revelers on March 19, 1996. The burnt-out shell of the club still lies vacant and undisturbed -- except, apparently, for ghosts. Passers-by report strange noises and sightings. Investigators, grieving relatives and friends of the victims say they have seen apparitions. Some photographs appear to show floating, whitish figures.

In a bid to put the spirits at rest, Joseph Stephen Santos, who lost a cousin in the fire and heads the Justice for Ozone Victims movement, invited the questors to hold a séance on the site. Questor Josie Buenafe, a teacher at an exclusive boys' school, called up the spirit of Ed. He said that while the victims wanted to be remembered, they urged their loved ones to let them go. Ed said there were only 60 spirits left in the Ozone and asked the questors to return for another meeting on the first anniversary of the fire.

In March this year the questors were back. This time they tapped into the spirit of Joey, who told them the details of what had happened on the night of the fire. Thought to be the deejay, Joey explained that when disco-goers saw smoke bellowing from his booth, they assumed it was just part of the show. Joey grabbed an extinguisher and tried to douse the flames, but was finally overcome and engulfed in the fire. He said he could "find the light" and move on to the next world, but had stayed to help the other spirits who were having trouble leaving.

Today, the Ozone's old neighbors have gone. A once-flourishing design shop next-door now stands vacant. On the other side, separated from the Ozone plot by a wall, is the restaurant and club of a recently built hotel. Workers in a glass shop two doors down say they don't hear anything unusual, but no one works late. "We all go home at night," they say.

Perez says there are far fewer spirits in the remains of the Ozone Disco than there used to be. "But many still remain, mostly because they are concerned for the welfare of their loved ones, who are still grieving. Unless the living learn to let go, the spirits will stay in the disco and will not find peace."


Sunday, January 4, 2015

Death Mask

A death mask is a wax or plaster cast made of a person’s face following death. Death masks may be mementos of the dead, or be used for creation of portraits. It is sometimes possible to identify portraits that have been painted from death masks, because of the characteristic slight distortions of the features caused by the weight of the plaster during the making of the mold. In othercultures a death mask may be a clay or another artifact placed on the face of the deceased before burial rites. The best known of these are the masks used by ancient Egyptians as part of the mummification process, such as Tutankhamun’s mask.

In the 10th century in some European countries, it was common for death masks to be used as part of the effigy of the deceased, displayed at state funerals. During the 18th and 19th centuries they were also used to permanently record the features of unknown corpses for purposes of identification. This function was later replaced by photography.

In the cases of people whose faces were damaged by their death, it was common to take casts of their hands. An example of this occurred in the case of Thomas D'Arcy McGee, the Canadian statesman whose face was shattered by the bullet which assassinated him in 1868.

When taken from a living subject, such a cast is called a life mask. Proponents of phrenology used both death masks and life masks for pseudoscientific purposes.

Masks of deceased persons are part of traditions in many countries. The most important process of the funeral ceremony inancient Egypt was the mummification of the body, which, after prayers and consecration, was put into a sarcophagus enameled and decorated with gold and gems. A special element of the rite was a sculpted mask, put on the face of the deceased. This mask was believed to strengthen the spirit of the mummy and guard the soul from evil spirits on its way to the afterworld. The best known mask is that of Tutankhamun. Made of gold and gems, the mask conveys the highly stylized features of the ancient ruler. Such masks were not, however, made from casts of the features; rather, the mummification process itself preserved the features of the deceased.

In 1876 the archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann discovered in Mycenae six graves, which he was confident belonged to kings and ancient Greek heroes—Agamemnon, Cassandra, Evrimdon and their associates. To his surprise, the skulls were covered with gold masks. It is now thought by some unlikely that the masks actually belonged to Agamemnon and other heroes of theHomeric epics.

The lifelike character of Roman portrait sculptures has been attributed to the earlier Roman use of wax to preserve the features of deceased family members. The wax masks were subsequently reproduced in more durable stone.

In the late Middle Ages, a shift took place from sculpted masks to true death masks, made of wax or plaster. These masks were not interred with the deceased. Instead, they were used in funeral ceremonies and were later kept in libraries, museums and universities. Death masks were taken not only of deceased royalty and nobility (Henry VIII, Sforza), but also of eminent persons—poets, philosophers, composer, and dramaturges, such as John Keats, Frédéric Chopin, Franz Liszt, Ludwig van Beethoven,Joseph Haydn, Dante Alighieri, Filippo Brunelleschi, Torquato Tasso, Blaise Pascal and Voltaire. As in ancient Rome, death masks were often subsequently used in making marble sculpture portraits, busts or engravings of the deceased.

Oliver Cromwell’s death mask is preserved at Warwick Castle. Another notable death mask is that of Napoleon Bonaparte, taken on the island of Saint Helena and displayed at London’s British Museum.

In Russia, the death mask tradition dates back to the times of Peter the Great, whose death mask was taken by Carlo Bartolomeo Rastrelli. Also well known are the death masks of Nicholas I, and Alexander I.

One of the first real Ukrainian death masks was that of the poet Taras Shevchenko, taken by Peter Clodt von Jürgensburg in St. Petersburg, Russia.

In early spring of 1860 and shortly before his death in April 1865, two life masks were created of President Abraham Lincoln.


Post-Mortem Photography

Post-mortem photography (also known as memorial portraiture or a mourning portrait) is the practice of photographing the recently deceased. These photographs of deceased loved ones were a normal part of American and European culture in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Commissioned by grieving families, postmortem photographs not only helped in the grieving process, but often represented the only visual remembrance of the deceased and were among a family's most precious possessions.

The invention of the daguerreotype in 1839 made portraiture much more commonplace, as many of those who were unable to afford the commission of a painted portrait could afford to sit for a photography session. This cheaper and quicker method also provided the middle class with a means for memorializing dead loved ones.

Post-mortem photography was very common in the nineteenth century when "death occurred in the home and was quite an ordinary part of life." Due to photography being a new medium, it is plausible that "many daguerreotype post-mortem portraits, especially those of infants and young children, were probably the only photographs ever made of the 'sitters." According to Mary Warner Marien, "post-mortem photography flourished in photography's early decades, among clients who preferred to capture an image of a deceased loved one rather than have no photograph at all."

These photographs served as keepsakes to remember the deceased. This was especially common with infants and young children; Victorian era childhood mortality rates were extremely high, and a post-mortem photograph might have been the only image of the child the family ever had. The later invention of the carte de visite, which allowed multiple prints to be made from a single negative, meant that copies of the image could be mailed to relatives.

The practice eventually peaked in popularity around the end of the 19th century and died out as "snapshot" photography became more commonplace, although a few examples of formal memorial portraits were still being produced well into the 20th century. A thorough history of post-mortem photography can seen in the award winning Sleeping Beauty book series, which showcases the memorial and post-mortem photography collection privately held by Dr. Stanley B. Burns and the Burns Archive.

The earliest post-mortem photographs are usually close-ups of the face or shots of the full body and rarely include thecoffin.[citation needed] The subject is usually depicted so as to seem in a deep sleep, or else arranged to appear more lifelike. Children were often shown in repose on a couch or in a crib, sometimes posed with a favorite toy or other plaything. It was not uncommon to photograph very young children with a family member, most frequently the mother. Flowers were also a common prop in post-mortem photography of all types.

While some images, (especially tintypes and ambrotypes), have a rosy tint added to the cheeks of the corpse, it is untrue that metal stands and other devices were used to pose the dead as though they were living. The use by photographers of a stand or arm rest (sometimes referred to as a Brady stand), which aided living persons to remain still long enough for the camera's lengthy exposure time, has given rise to this myth. While nineteenth century people may have wished their loved ones to look their best in a memorial photograph, evidence of a metal stand should be understood as proof that the subject was a living person.

Later photographic examples show the subject in a coffin. Some very late examples show the deceased in a coffin with a large group of funeral attendees; this type of photograph was especially popular in Europe and less common in the United States.

Post-mortem photography is still practiced in some areas of the world such as Eastern Europe. Photographs, especially depicting persons who were considered to be very holy lying in their coffins, are still circulated among faithful Eastern Catholic,Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Christians.

A variation of the memorial portrait involves photographing the family with a shrine (usually including a living portrait) dedicated to the deceased.


Friday, January 2, 2015

10 Haunted Hospitals

10. Royal Hope Hospital - Florida, USA

Located in St. Augustine, Florida, Royal Hope Hospital was a Spanish military hospital from 1784 to 1821, before eventually being demolished. A replica of the original hospital was later built to house the wounded during the Seminole War. Eventually, St. Augustine city workers were attempting to repair some water lines and dug in the area of the old hospital, only to discover that it had been built on what appeared to be an old Native American burial ground.

Yes, we are talking about a real-life example of the infamous horror movie trope (Poltergeist was scary, okay?). As you might expect, due to its rather gruesome history, and the fact that it was constructed on those sacred grounds, many reports have suggested it is, in fact, one of the most haunted places in all of Florida.

In the surgeon’s office, there have been reports of the equipment shaking on its own; while in the ward, visitors have said that the beds have actually jumped and knocked at their legs as they passed by. All of this despite the fact that it is not the original building. However, those who believe say the spirits of those who died at the hospital have remained on the grounds through all of these years.

9. Tranquille Sanatorium - Canada

Located on Kamloops Lake in British Columbia, Canada, Tranquille Sanatorium began its life as a ranch before the owners began caring for tuberculosis patients. It was converted to a full hospital in 1907, specifically meant to treat victims of TB. After treating more than 4,000 patients over the years, it closed in the 1950’s and wild rumors began to surface that, at the time of its closing, there was no sign of patients or staff, though that has been more or less proven to be false.

It would eventually reopen, primarily serving as a hospital and training facility, but then shut its doors for good in 1985. You may actually recognize it from several movies, including the recent version of The A-Team, as well as several television shows. Over the years, there have been reports of mysterious floating orbs throughout the facility, inexplicable feelings of sadness, unease and sudden drops in temperature. There have also been reports of mysterious voices and spectral figures, including that of a nurse who was allegedly murdered by a patient.

8. Sai Ying Pun Psychiatry Hospital - Hong Kong

Located in Hong Kong, Sai Ying Pun was a mental hospital built in 1892. It has come to be known as the High Street Ghost House due to the many tales of the supernatural that have emerged. It was initially used as living quarters for the nursing staff until World War II. At that time, it was rumored to have been seized by Japanese soldiers and used as an execution hall. Serving as a mental hospital from 1947 to 1961 (then the lone mental hospital in all of Hong Kong), it became a psychiatric out-patient facility until 1971.

Nowadays, you would never know of its ghostly rumors by looking at it, as it is a community center housing several charity organizations. When it was abandoned in the 1970’s, rumors started to circulate of the sounds of a woman crying, or a loud, thunderous sound emanating from the building. Mysterious footsteps, visions of a devilish man appearing on the second floor before bursting into flames and decapitated spirits wandering the halls at night have all been reported.

7. Nocton Hall Hospital - England

Unlike most other hospitals, Nocton Hall began life as a stately manor home until World War I, when it was taken over and used by American forces as a place for injured soldiers to rest and recuperate. It was used again during World War II as a military hospital and has been used in a similar manner ever since, including as an American military hospital during the Gulf War. The intimidating building was abandoned in 1995, and multiple cases of arson rendered it unusable again.

Stories abound of one ghost in particular haunting the grounds–a sobbing spirit of a young girl whose presence has been reported by various people who have stayed at the building. She is said to haunt one specific bedroom more than others, with numerous people claiming to have been awoken at exactly 4:30 in the morning to see the spectral girl standing at the foot of the bed, crying. The story continues that she is apparently the ghost of a servant girl who was raped and murdered by the son of the man who owned Nocton Hall before it became a military hospital.

6. Old Changi Hospital - Singapore

Built in 1935, Old Changi Hospital has become known as one of the most haunted sites in all of Singapore through the years. At the time it was built, it served as the Royal Air Force Hospital and was later used by the Japanese as a prison camp. It was right around this time that Old Changi Hospital became a torture chamber.

It should not come as a surprise then that there are regularly reported sightings of ghosts believed to be the victims of the Japanese. These days the now-abandoned building, which ceased operation in 1997, has been the site of many supernaturally themed shows, as camera crews attempt to catch evidence of an otherworldly presence in the decrepit, spooky rooms and corridors. Visitors to Old Changi also often come away with frightening stories of strange noises and encounters and, occasionally, feelings of nausea or tales of sensing a spirit following them even after they’ve left.

5. Ararat Lunatic Asylum - Australia

Today it is known as Aradale, but when it opened in 1867 it was called Ararat Lunatic Asylum, and it was the largest in all of Australia, featuring some bizarre and horrifying methods of treatment. Throughout its time as a functioning mental health “care” facility, Ararat housed tens of thousands of patients. It was also reportedly home to some of the most dangerous and violent psychotics in the world.

It remained open for 130 years, during which time a staggering 13,000 patients died there–probably why it is known as one of the most haunted places in all of Australia. The facility closed in 1998, but it was shockingly reopened three years later by the Northern Melbourne Institute of Technical and Further Education as a campus for the Australian College of Wine. Ghost sightings are still frequent, and haunted tours are given through various parts of the facility including the morgue. We’re sure that probably isn’t the slightest bit terrifying.

4. Severalls Hospital - England

There’s something especially terrifying about psychiatric hospitals, which is probably why so many are rolling in rumors and speculation about hauntings. Severalls Hospital in Colchester, England is no different, and it probably doesn’t hurt its haunted reputation that it was once known for conducting psychiatric experiments like full frontal lobotomies and substantial electroshock therapy.

In a rather terrifying twist, it has been suggested that these treatments, which were deemed cures, were used on people who exhibited moodiness or teenage defiance. Also as frightening is the fact that several of the female patients were committed by their families after birthing bastard children, often the result of being raped.

The hospital opened in 1913, with actual psychiatric treatments shutting down in the early 1990’s. It closed altogether in 1997, and it has since been subject to rampant vandalism but has remained otherwise largely untouched. Of course, it likely will not remain untouched for long, as current development plans could result in the hospital being torn down in order to repurpose the land. Still, ghost hunters frequent the facility and are particularly drawn to the mortuary (because why wouldn’t they be drawn to the mortuary?).

3. Athens Mental Hospital - Ohio, USA

The Athens Mental Hospital, located in Athens, Ohio, opened its doors in 1874 and over the years adopted a few different monikers, including the Athens Hospital for the Insane, and it stayed in operation until 1993. By the 1950’s, the hospital was treating more than 1,800 patients at once, and became famed for the infamous lobotomy procedure and housing violent criminals. Over time, the hospital became known as The Ridges, though its history has been somewhat shrouded in mystery.

The mystery is largely due to the fact that any information about patients is kept under tight wraps, with special permission needed from the state of Ohio to gain access. There are also more than 1,900 people buried on the grounds, with their headstones marked by number only, no names attached. Eventually, a large portion of the grounds was given to Ohio University.

One thing that gives this hospital an extra creep factor is the 1978 disappearance of a female patient. Her body was found a year later in an abandoned ward, and you can still see a stain on the floor where her corpse was found, more than three decades later.

2. Taunton State Hospital - Massachusetts, USA

Located in Taunton, Massachusetts, Taunton State Hospital was built in 1854 as a psychiatric hospital, and it boasts a rather horrifying history. One of the hospital’s most famous patients was Jane Toppan, a serial killer who confessed to having murdered at least 31 people while working as a nurse. And yet, according to some of the stories, the people who ran Taunton State Hospital may have actually been even more terrifying than many of the criminally insane patients it housed.

Rumors persist that some of the doctors and nurses would take the (obviously unwilling) patients into the basement and use them to conduct satanic rituals, and in its later years both patients and doctors reported feeling a tremendous sense of unease when even approaching the door to the basement. Reports abound of a “shadow man” who would crawl on the walls and watch the patients. At least you wouldn’t feel lonely, right?

1. Beechworth Lunatic Asylum - Australia

Originally known as Mayday Hills Lunatic Asylum, Beechworth was a sister hospital to Ararat in Victoria, Australia, and was open for 128 years before shutting its doors for good in 1995. Both Beechworth and Ararat were opened in the same year after Victoria’s lone mental institution suffered became overcrowded. At its height, Beechworth housed roughly 1,200 patients, and it was remarkably easy to have someone committed, requiring only two signatures to do so.

There were reports of mysterious deaths and disappearances at Beechworth, and in the facility’s first laboratory for experimentation, operations and autopsies, jars filled with body parts adorned the shelves throughout the room. These jars have since vanished, as a fire took part of Beechworth in the 1950’s and the jars disappeared sometime around the restoration of the facility. Of course, when you consider that Beechworth’s first superintendent believed the moon caused insanity and therefore would never go out at night without an umbrella, some of these practices begin to make a big more sense. Overall, nearly 9,000 patients died at Beechworth, including a young girl who was mysteriously thrown from a window, her death going unsolved. Don’t worry–ghost and murder tours are still offered at the facility.



Exocannibalism (from Greek Exo-, "from outside" and Cannibalism, 'to eat humans'), as opposed to endocannibalism, is the consumption of flesh outside one's close social group—for example, eating one's enemy. When done ritually, it has been associated with being a means of imbibing valued qualities of the victim or as an act of final violence against the deceased in the case of sociopathy, as well as a symbolic expression of the domination of an enemy in warfare. Such practices have been documented in such cultures as the Aztecs from Mexico, the Carib and the Tupinambá from South America.

Historically, it has also been used as a practical expediency in especially desperate attritional or guerrilla warfare when the extreme hunger and the abundance of humans being killed coincide to create conditions ripe for cannibalism.


Thursday, January 1, 2015

Happy New Year 2015!